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Definitions of biological control (biocontrol, for short) vary, but biocontrol can be broadly defined as: using beneficial organisms to reduce populations of pest organisms, or to maintain them at sufficiently low levels.

Either the pest or the beneficial organism might be a vertebrate (e.g., rodents), an invertebrate (e.g., insects, ticks, slugs), or a microorganism (e.g., fungi, bacteria). Aphids and ladybugs are an example you might be familiar with. Ladybugs eat the aphids that might otherwise damage plants.