Grape IPM in the Northeast
IPM practice to be implemented:
- pheromone mating disruption - grape berry moth , see discussion below.
see discussion below.
- grape flea beetle
- climbing cutworm
Application of Pheromone ties for Grape Berry Moth
(also available as 234k pdf file)
Isomate-GBM®, a mating disruption pheromone product, should be placed in vineyards during the second week of May to ensure that pheromone will be present before the start of the first mating flight of adult grape berry moth. This product has been shown to be effective in low- and moderate-risk sites of 5 acres in size or more. Work is continuing on how to make Isomate-GBM® useful in high-risk sites. Please consult Value of Scouting for Grape Berry Moth and Grape Leafhopper for cost comparisons of the various grape berry moth management practices, and New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin 135 (586k pdf file), Phermonal Control of the Grape Berry Moth: An Effective Alternative to Conventional Insecticides (appendix 2) for complete information on the use of Isomate-GBM®.
Monitoring for grape flea beetle and climbing cutworm should be accomplished from bud swell to one-inch shoot growth. These are sporadic, secondary pests in grapes and will not require treatment in most years. Vineyard location and environmental conditions affect the severity of these pests. Weather conditions that quickly push vines from bud swell into shoot growth drastically limit the potential for damage that can be done by these pests.
Grape Flea Beetle (or Steely Beetle)
(also available as 225 pdf file)
The grape flea beetle overwinters as an adult. Favorable overwintering habitats include wasteland, woodland, and abandoned vineyards. Overwintering adults move into vineyards around bud swell. Economic damage may occur, especially in border rows, through direct bud feeding. Adults bore into the buds, hollowing out the insides. Sanitation can be an important means of managing grape flea beetle. Cleanup of wasteland, woodland, or abandoned vineyards near cultivated grapes reduces overwintering sites. Monitoring vineyards at bud swell for the presence of damaged buds will give an indication of the potential for flea beetle damage. Insecticide treatments during the postbloom period for grape berry moth help reduce the overwintering populations of grape flea beetle. If bud damage reaches 1 to 2 percent, an insecticide application is warranted. Under such conditions, growers may want to consider limiting treatment to border rows.
(also available as 220 pdf file)
Climbing cutworm larvae will feed on grapes from full bud swell through one-inch shoot growth. Feeding generally results in the loss of primary and, in some cases, secondary and tertiary buds. Cutworm damage is more commonly found in vineyards on light-textured soils. Feeding on the buds is very similar to that of the adult grape flea beetle, with the exception that flea beetle feeding starts a little earlier at bud swell. Cutworms feed at night, making a determination of which pest is causing the damage more difficult. Monitoring vineyards for bud damage will give an indication of the potential for further damage. If bud damage reaches 1 to 2 percent, an insecticide application is warranted.